TOEFL 11 - 20
CK English Aulas Particulares de inglês em Uberlândia ou online no Brasil
1. What is the topic of this discussion?
A. West Point before the establishment of the military academy
B. Key battles during the American Revolution
C. Benedict Arnold's military career
D. The recent history of West Point
2. Why is this topic being discussed?
A. The students will be visiting the place under discussion.
B. The students asked the instructor about it.
C. The students are expected to know about it for a test
D. It appeared on an exam that the students took.
3. Where is West Point located?
A. Across the Hudson from Manhattan
B. Forty-five miles from Manhattan
C. In the middle of the Hudson
D. Forty-five miles from the Hudson
4. In what ways mentioned in the discussion was the Hudson strategically important to the British? Choose 2.
5. What types of fortifications were installed by the colonists around West Point? Choose 2.
A. A massive wall around the military academy
B. Cannons in the hills
C. Forts in the area
D. A chain around Constitution Island
6. What is stated in the discussion about Benedict Arnold? Choose 2.
A. He constructed the fortifications at West Point.
B. He was recognized for his accomplishments early in the war
C. He served as commander-in-chief of the American forces.
D. He tried to surrender West Point to the British
7. What did Benedict Arnold expect to gain for his act of treason?
A. British citizenship
B. Acknowledgment as a military hero
C. The rank of major in the British military
D. Financial reward
8. What is stated in the discussion about Benedict Arnold? Choose 2.
A. He was viewed as a hero early in his career
B. He was viewed as a traitor early in his career.
C. He was viewed as a hero late in his career.
D. He was viewed as a traitor late in his career
Announcement from the Geology Department
We are pleased to announce that the fifteenth annual Field Geology Summer Program will take place at the Copper Mountain Field Camp from July 12 to July 26. The Field Geology Summer Program is jointly organized by the Mountain States Universities and gives future geologists the opportunity to do field research. The program offers two weeks of lectures, field work, and lab training. Registration for the Field Geology Summer Program is now open. Pick up a Field Geology packet at the Geology Department to find out more about the program and details on registration, accommodations, and prices.
Humans are constantly perceiving visual and auditory stimuli. Sometimes our perception of these stimuli occurs consciously; we are aware of a stimulus and know that we are perceiving it. But our perception of a stimulus can also occur without our awareness: an image might appear and disappear before our eyes too quickly for us to notice that we saw it, or a sound might be too faint for us to realize that we heard it. This phenomenon—the perception of a stimulus just below the threshold of conscious awareness—is called subliminal perception. Experiments have shown that subliminally perceived stimuli can influence people’s thoughts and attitudes.
1. What is the professor mainly discussing?
A. The importance of function in the design of a building
B. A number of modern American architects and the important elements in their work
C. Which of the three elements of architecture is the most important?
D. The important characteristics of the designs of one specific architect
2. What was NOT mentioned in the lecture as one of the main elements to be considered by an architect?
3. What is stated about the Guggenheim?
A. It has numerous rooms.
B. It is a long, low building.
C. It used to be Wright's home.
D. It exemplifies Wright's belief in openness
4. Which characteristics of prairie-style houses does the professor mention? Choose 2.
A. They are long, low buildings
B. They fit well on the prairies
C. They are tall, open buildings.
D. They were influenced by European architecture.
5. What material does the professor say that Wright appreciated for its durability?
6. What two resources will be tested on the exam? Choose 2.
A. The books on reserve in the library
B. The class text
C. The biography of Wright
D. The professor's lectures
College Radio Station to Undergo Major Changes?
The university is considering making major changes to the college radio station. Changes would include an expansion of the station’s broadcasting range, which would allow the radio’s programming to reach nearby towns. One goal of the plan is to attract more students to apply to its communications program. Another goal is to provide the university with an extra source of revenue. University officials expect the enhanced radio station to significantly increase the number of listeners, which will in turn encourage businesses to place commercials on the radio.
A few hundred thousand years ago, humans migrated from the savanna grasslands of Africa and spread rapidly into the regions of present-day Europe and Asia. This migration coincided with successive cycles of glacial periods known as "Ice Ages" and probably occurred as humans followed the advance and retreat of plants and animals. Humans survived the bitterly cold weather that prevailed in these regions through their ability to make things, such as shelter and clothing, but more importantly, their ability to control fire.
Later migrations took humans to Japan, on to Indonesia, and finally to Australia. They also migrated across the Bering land bridge into what is now North America and spread quickly down to the southern tip of South America. Later movements brought people to the eastern Canadian Arctic and northern Greenland.
1. What is the professor mainly discussing?
A. Insects that feed on plants
B. Animals that feed on insects
C. Plants that use insects to survive
D. Insects that are attractive to plants
2. Why is the professor discussing this topic?
A. He is lecturing about something that the students will see the next day
B. He is preparing the students for an exam that is tomorrow.
C. He is explaining something that the students have just seen.
D. He is discussing something that the students will be required to read.
3. What does an insectivorous plant get from an insect?
A. All of its nutrients
D. Digestive liquid
4. According to the lecturer, how widespread are insectivorous plants?
A. There are hundreds of varieties in the world
B. They exist in 500 countries in the world.
C. They exist only in North America.
D. There are five different types throughout the world.
5. What is stated in the lecture about the Venus flytrap?
A. It is the largest insectivorous plant.
B. It is found only in South America.
C. It has movable parts
D. It has only one trap leaf.
6. What is stated in the lecture about the sensory bristles? Choose 2.
A. They are divided into two parts.
B. There are three
C. They are on the outside of the leaf.
D. They cause the trap leaf to close
Announcement from the University Art Gallery
The Exhibit of Eighteenth-Century Silhouettes will open January 17 at the University Art Gallery.
Before the invention of photography, the silhouette artist captured a sitter's profile by using light to project a shadow of the subject onto a screen. Once the artist traced the shadow, it could be transferred onto other materials or reduced to fit into brooches, lockets, or rings. This fine collection of silhouettes traces the art form from its heyday in the early 1700s up to its present day revival.
How an object affects our senses depends in part on external conditions, and these conditions are always changing. An object viewed from one angle presents a different shape to our eye than when viewed from another angle; similarly, as the distance from which we view an object changes, the object will appear larger or smaller. In spite of this, even as conditions change and we see objects differently, we still recognize that they remain the same. This is what is known as perceptual constancy. If not for perceptual constancy, we might have difficulty recognizing familiar objects if we viewed them in a new and different context.
1. Why are the man and woman talking?
A. They are reviewing information covered in class
B. They are preparing to attend a class.
C. They are reviewing information from a chapter they read.
D. They are preparing to present information in class
2. What are they discussing?
A. How the continents were discovered
B. How the continents got their names
C. How the continents differ
D. How the continents were formed
3. The professor explains where the name of each continent came from. Indicate which continent each of the explanations matches.
a) From the name of an explorer AFRICA
b) From the name of a culture AMERICA
c) From the name of an animal ANTARCTICA
d) From a word meaning "east" ASIA
e) From a word meaning "west" AUSTRALIA
f) From a word meaning "south" EUROPE
4. What misconception did the Greeks have about Europe and Asia?
A. Whether their names came from Semitic or Greek
B. Which was located to the east and which was located to the west
C. Whether they were one landmass or two
D. Where the dividing line between Europe and Asia lay
5. Which statements about the Arctic and Antarctica are true? Choose 2
A. The Arctic and Antarctica both have names based on "bear."
B. The Arctic is a continent that means "opposite Antarctica."
C. The names of both the Arctic and Antarctica were derived from Greek
D. The ant portion of the Antarctica means "before."
6. Why does the woman say this: Listen to the sound clip again
A. To indicate to the man that she did not understand what he said
B. To let the man know that she would like to talk more about the previous topic
C. To let the man know that they do not have much time left
D. To get the man to consider that there might be more to talk about
A university official announced plans to spend $2 million to build a new athletic stadium, commenting that a new stadium would help the university achieve its goal of attracting more top students. The official also said that, additionally, building a new stadium would allow the university to strengthen its relationship with the town since a new and larger stadium would have the space to seat not only students, parents, and alumni, but members of the local community as well.
Number sense refers to the ability that a person has to think and work with numbers. Being able to handle numbers with competence means having to develop a strong number sense. It includes understanding number patterns, relationships between numbers, and operations involving numbers. These skills are necessary for making mathematical judgments as well as for solving complex problems. A precursor to understanding numbers and to number sense is a basic understanding of sorting objects, classifying them, putting them in order, and making comparisons. School-aged children can use language and symbols to label the number of objects that are in a set. Preschool children already have some intuition that could be considered number sense.
1. What main point does the professor make about these works by Webster?
A. They are both extremely well known today.
B. They both describe the actual state of American English at the time they were written
C. They were the only books that Webster wrote.
D. They accurately describe both American and British English.
2. What is true of Webster's works?
A. He wrote only two books.
B. His works are all largely unknown today.
C. His writings were all advanced, scholarly dissertations.
D. His books had an impact on modern American English
3. Why does the professor discuss a book that is so unfamiliar to the students?
A. Because it is such a contrast to the really famous dictionary.
B. Because it was extremely important in the early history of American English
C. Because it contains the most complete list of American English words ever created.
D. Because it accurately showed the correct British English forms of words.
4. Which words were mentioned by the lecturer as new words added to the dictionary by Webster? Choose 2.
5. What were Webster's purposes in writing these two books? Choose 2.
A. To standardize American and British meanings of words
B. To weed out purely American vocabulary
C. To help Americans understand that their language is their own
D. To standardize Americanized spellings of words
6. Which of the following best expresses the professor's view of these works by Webster?
A. They accurately describe the lifestyle of early America.
B. They were important in the development of American English
C. They served to reinforce differences between America and Britain.
D. They caused changes in American English.
A section of the syllabus
In addition to the material that you are assigned to read in the textbook and selected journals, you are also expected to stay current on what is happening in politics and government by reading the appropriate sections of newspapers and magazines on a regular basis. Please note that I expect you to be knowledgeable about current events in politics and government at the local, state, and federal levels. Please also note that I expect you to have an understanding of current events from several perspectives, so it is not acceptable to read about an event in only a single source. Finally, please note that I quite commonly find it useful to measure just how much knowledge you have about current happenings in politics and government.
Wolves in Yellowstone Park
Thanks to a controversial but very successful reintroduction program, wolves are now in Yellowstone again after an absence of almost 70 years.
These wolves had been hunted to near extinction on the North American continent. Several dozen wolves were captured in Canada and turned loose in Yellowstone in March 1995. Those animals have done remarkably well, reproducing at a rapid rate. Packs are now located in various parts of the park. Wolves prey on a variety of species, notably elk in the Yellowstone area, but will also pursue moose, deer, sheep and other animals. However, cattle ranchers in the nearby area complained that the wolves were killing their livestock.
Integrated Writing 04
Many people dream of owning their own business but are afraid of the risks. Instead of starting a new business, however, one can buy a franchise. A franchise is a license issued by a large, usually well-known, company to a small business owner. Under the license, the owner acquires the right to use the company's brand name and agrees to sell its products. In return, the franchising company receives a percent of the sales.
A major problem for first-time business owners is finding reliable suppliers of the goods and services they need: equipment, raw materials, maintenance, etc. It is easy to choose the wrong supplier, and doing so can be costly. Buying a franchise eliminates much of this problem. Most franchising companies have already found reliable suppliers, and franchise contracts typically specify which suppliers are to be used. This protects franchise owners from the risk of serious losses.
Another advantage of a franchise is that it can save a new business a lot of money on advertising. Advertising one's product to potential customers is a crucial factor in a business's success. A franchise owner, however, sells an already popular and recognized brand and also gets the benefit of sophisticated and expensive advertising paid by the parent company.
Finally, a franchise offers more security than starting an independent (nonfranchise) business. The failure rate for starting independent businesses is very high during the first few years; the failure rate for starting franchises is much lower. Finding one's own way in today's competitive business environment is difficult, and buying a franchise allows an inexperienced business owner to use a proven business model.
1. Why are the students discussing this material?
A. They are preparing to attend a lecture.
B. They are going over material presented by a professor.
C. They are reviewing material on an exam.
D. They are working on a report.
2. Where was the center of the earthquakes discussed by the students?
A. Near the Missouri River in the state of Mississippi
B. In the Mississippi river valley in the state of Mississippi
C. In the Mississippi river valley in the state of Missouri
D. Near the Missouri River in the state of Mississippi
3. Based on the information in the discussion, indicate whether the statements below are true about the Mississippi earthquakes. Choose 2.
A. They took place in the eighteenth century
B. They took place over a three-month period
C. They were extremely strong
D. They were felt only along the Mississippi River
4. According to the students, what topographical changes occurred as a result of the Mississippi earthquakes? Choose 2.
A. Rivers disappeared.
B. Land sank
C. Volcanic craters formed.
D. New lakes formed
5. What can be concluded from the discussion about 5 percent of the world's earthquakes?
A. They occur in Mississippi.
B. They are not explained by the theory of plate tectonics
C. They develop in the middle of the North American plate.
D. They result from movement along the borders of tectonic plates.
6. Why did the professor most likely discuss these earthquakes and plate tectonics in the same lecture?
A. The earthquakes support the theory of plate tectonics.
B. The earthquakes occurred where two huge plates crashed together.
C. The earthquakes led to the theory of plate tectonics.
D. The earthquakes fail to support the theory of plate tectonics
A Notice from Public Safety
A new parking policy is being instituted starting next year. Previously, faculty and staff were given first preference of parking passes, then commuting students, then the remaining passes were given out on a first-come-first-serve basis. This new policy is intended to more fairly and orderly distribute the passes. The university will now give out parking passes by means of a lottery. To sign up for the lottery and for questions and information, please log on to the Public Safety webpage.
In the 1930s and 1940s, there was considerable discussion in business about a change that was underway in management of large corporations, and this change was referred to as the managerial revolution. The change that was taking place was what was viewed as a radical change and hence the use of the term revolution from private ownership of large companies to public ownership of corporations through publicly traded stocks and the accompanying change in management from management by private company owners to management by professional employees, rather than owners, of publicly traded corporations. The managerial revolution, as it was termed, was therefore the change from management by owners of private companies that had been prevalent in the early stages of industrial capitalism to the late twentieth-century style of management by professional managers who are employees, rather than owners, of publicly-owned corporations.
1. Why is the professor discussing "Yankee Doodle"?
A. To make the point that American music developed from British music
B. To prepare the students to teach the song to children
C. To provide an example of a song that glorifies war
D. To demonstrate that the song has historical significance
2. The professor explains various terms in the lecture. Indicate for each term how it can be explained.
1. Yankee INSULT ABOUT IMPROPER DRESS
2. Doodle AMERICAN COLONIST
3. Macaroni MISGUIDED ATTEMPT TO BE FASHIONABLE
3. How do the drawings help the students to understand the message of the song? Listen to the sound clip again.
A. The message of the song is about how similar the British and Americans were.
B. The drawings would help the students understand how it felt to be living at the time of the Revolution.
C. The message of the song was based on how the soldiers looked
D. The drawings show clearly why the British soldiers were called "Doodles."
4. When did the song "Yankee Doodle" first appear?
A. Prior to the colonization of America
B. Before the Revolutionary War
C. During the Revolutionary War
D. After the Revolutionary War
5. How was the song "Yankee Doodle" developed? Choose 2.
A. It was written by the British
B. It was written by the Americans.
C. It was intended to show honor.
D. It was intended to be offensive
6. What conclusion can be drawn from this lecture?
A. A simple children's song can actually have historical significance
B. It is important for children to learn to sing.
C. Music was very important at the time of the Revolution.
D. American music differs considerably from British music.
Section from a university catalogue
Because enrollment in upper-division engineering classes is extremely limited, the Engineering Department has special procedures for admitting students to a major in engineering. Students must take all prerequisites before applying to the Engineering Department for a major in engineering. (For a list of prerequisites for an engineering major, see page 249.) Only students with a minimum average of 3.0, or B, in the engineering prerequisite courses may apply, and only top candidates will be selected from the pool of applicants. Applications for acceptance as an engineering major must be submitted by April 1, and lists of students who have been accepted as engineering majors for the coming academic year will be posted by June 1.
Hacking: Crime or Service to Society?
In the world of computers, the term “hacker” gets two different responses. One hacker can be productively designing games, programs, and ways to
improve security of information, while the other hacker tries to break into systems in a way that causes individuals and companies to loose, distort or release information without permission.
How do we define a “hacker?” A hacker can improve programs in business so that the business or individual will be protected from unwanted tampering. This hacker explores the limits of the program. Or, is a hacker the term for activity that is unlawful? A hacker in this case is one who deliberately invades programs and causes computer problems. Some do this for fun; however, this can cause great hardship for businesses and individuals.
People who play around with computers would say hackers are exercising their skills. Others may say hackers are criminals. Which definition is it?
1. What main point is the professor trying to make about people's perceptions?
A. They are generally accurate.
B. They change often.
C. They are often wrong.
D. They are very strange.
2. How is the information in the lecture organized?
A. A concept is supported by an extended example
B. An example that contradicts a concept is presented.
C. Several examples are presented to support a concept.
D. Several concepts related to a single example are presented.
3. What do most people think about American multimillionaires? Choose 2.
A. They eat simple food.
B. They wear clothes that cost a lot.
C. They are unconcerned about small amounts of money.
D. They drive inexpensive cars.
4. What does the professor mean when he says this:
A. You go to the same ballpark as most people.
B. You have similar possessions as most people.
C. You are in the same social group as most people.
D. Your ideas are similar to those of most people
5. According to the lecture, which comment would most likely be made by the average American multimillionaire?
A. "Oh, no! I won't have time to buy a new silk evening gown!"
B. "Oh, no! I hate the thought of buying a new car!"
C. "Oh, no! I forgot to order the champagne for the gala on Friday."
D. "Oh, no! Our car is almost a year old. We've got to start looking for a new one! "
6. What conclusion can be drawn from the information provided by the professor concerning multimillionaires?
A. That the perception of them is generally similar to reality
B. That they do not have a clear perception of reality
C. That the perception of them often differs from reality
D. That their perception of other people matches with reality
Announcement of New Sports Facility
The Alumni Office of Central State University is pleased to announce that construction of a new sports facility will commence this summer. Due in part to a very generous grant from a 1974 alumnus, Jason Chitwood, the new facility will include an indoor basketball court, a swimming pool, an indoor track, and a climbing wall. The ground breaking ceremony will be on April 7th with construction to begin shortly thereafter. The project is scheduled to be completed by summer of 2009.
Nature and Nurture
There has been a long-standing controversy among sociologists, psychologists, philosophers, and ethicists over whether human character and behavior are influenced more by nature or by nurture. Advocates of the nature-over-nurture position support the premise that a person's character and behavior are influenced primarily by what a person is born with, by genetic inheritance from his or her parents. In contrast, advocates of the nurture-over-nature position support the premise that a person's character and behavior are primarily influenced by the environment into which he or she is born, that is, by the way that he or she was raised, by the experiences that the individual has had, by what this individual has learned since birth.
1. What is the main topic of the discussion?
A. The common characteristics of evergreens
B. A certain tree and what comes from it
C. How cocoa and chocolate are different
D. Where cacao trees grow
2. Where is the cacao tree probably NOT found?
1. In Europe
2. Central America
3. South America
3. What is stated about the leaves of the cacao tree? Choose 2.
A. They are long
B. They are thin.
C. They are shiny
D. They are narrow
4. What does the instructor mean when she says this?
A. "I expect you to know more."
B. "Let's go over the topics of the previous lesson."
C. "I don't think you agree with what I just said."
D. "Do you know what we're discussing?"
5. How is chocolate made?
A. The fruit of the cacao plant is dried and chopped.
B. The seeds of the cocoa plant are mixed with the fruit and dried.
C. The fresh leaves of the cacao tree are ground.
D. The seeds of the fruit of the cacao tree are roasted and then ground
6. How are each of these items described in the discussion?
A. Cocoa 1. TREE
B. Chocolate 2. HIGH-FAT PRODUCT
C. Cacao 3. DEFATTED PRODUCT
Notice from university administration
We regret to have to inform the campus community that the event scheduled for Friday evening has been cancelled. Since it was first announced that a certain guest speaker was scheduled to give a talk on Friday evening, the university has received a considerable amount of criticism for scheduling a speaker who is known for his controversial stances on issues that are important to our campus community. In response to all of these criticisms, the university has decided that it is best to cancel the event on Friday evening. Anyone who has already purchased tickets for the event may return the tickets to the ticket office for a complete refund.
The Mock Epic
The term mock epic or mock heroic refers to a shorter epic written in a satirical manner. It has all the characteristics of a large epic, such as starting out with the invocation of the muse, being written in iambic pentameter, containing a Homeric simile, or a long and drawn out comparison of two things, and having a hero with a tragic flaw, but is much shorter and uses satire as its centerpiece. Satire is usually used to make fun of some aspect in a society.
1. This lecture is part of which course?
A. The Works of Margaret Mitchel
B. The History of the Civil War
C. Famous American Novels
D. The Culture of the South
2. What does the professor say about Gone with the Wind?
A. It took place in the South
B. It was relatively short.
C. It was written during the Civil War.
D. It described Margaret Mitchell's family.
3. What is true about the success of Gone with the Wind? Choose 2.
A. The novel took several years to become successful.
B. Fifty thousand copies of the novel were sold in one day
C. The novel was translated into 25 languages
D. The novel sold three and a half million copies in its first year.
4. What can be inferred from the lecture about Margaret Mitchell's upbringing?
A. It had little effect on her as an adult.
B. It was based on the idea that it is important to live in the present.
C. It encouraged her to dream of becoming a famous actor.
D. It had considerable impact on the theme of Gone with the Wind
5. How could Margaret Mitchell's efforts in making Gone with the Wind successful be characterized?
A. She refused to have the novel published.
B. She seemed rather indifferent toward having a successful novel
C. She took a number of steps to try and get the book published.
D. She devoted all of her energy to making the novel successful.
6. Which of the following might Margaret Mitchell have said about her earlier novel set during World War I?
A. I am so unhappy with it that I want to make sure no one ever sees it.
B. I hope it can be as successful as Gone with the Wind.
C. I actually think it's a better novel than Gone with the Wind
D. It is really different from Gone with the Wind because it is set during a war.
Attention All Foreign Language Students
Starting this semester, all students wishing to use the Foreign Language Lab are required to purchase an access card. No students will be allowed entry to the lab without first purchasing this card. The card is $10 and can be purchased at the school bookstore. The proceeds from this card are being used to supplement the student technology fee, which was used to renovate the lab over the summer. New computers and software, as well as new language tutors, were all part of the renovation.
Aaron Burr was an interesting figure in American history, whose greatest acclaim was for his stint as vice president of the United States under President Thomas Jefferson from 1801 to 1805. He started out his adult life by graduating with honors from Princeton University in 1772 and serving in the continental army from 1775 until 1779, rising to the rank of lieutenant colonel by the age of 24. He was elected to the New York legislature in 1784 and was elected to the U.S. Senate in 1791. His intelligence, charm, and service to his political party led to his selection as vice president.
Integrated Writing 05
Soon technology will provide smart cars: cars that virtually drive themselves. A computer in the car determines the speed and route to the desired destination. The computer is in continuous contact with a global positioning system and other technologies that will provide extremely accurate information about the location of the car, other cars on the road, congestion, accidents, and so forth. The human driver will be little more than a passenger. Smart cars promise to make driving safer, quicker, and less expensive.
First of all, smart cars will prevent many accidents, thereby saving lives. The cars will be equipped with a variety of sensors that very accurately detect cars and other obstacles in their path, and they will have automatic programs that control braking and turning to avoid collisions. Given the hundreds of accidents that occur on highways daily, it is clear that humans do a poor job of avoiding accidents and that computer control would be a great improvement.
Second, with the wide use of smart cars, traffic problems will practically disappear. These computer-controlled cars can follow each other closely, even at high speeds. This ability will result in increased highway speeds. Today commuting by car can take hours a day. So the increased speed of smart cars will be a great benefit, welcomed by the many people who commute by car.
Finally, smart cars will bring a reduction in the costs of driving. Because smart cars are programmed to drive the most direct routes, car owners will have to spend less money on repairs and replacement parts. Expensive items such as brakes, tires, and transmissions will last much longer in smart cars than in other cars.